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Verso partial list of the encodings supported by verso norma python installation can be found durante appendix B

Verso partial list of the encodings supported by verso norma python installation can be found durante appendix B

It is sopra fact perfectly possible – and proper – to encode per sequence of Unicode codepoints durante the (say) Latin-1 encoding provided that the codepoints are representable sopra the target encoding. It is for instance possible sicuro encode as ‘Latin-1’ the ‘U+00e8’ codepoint, whereas the same cannot be done for the Kanji codepoint ‘U+4e01’. Both codepoints in the preceding example, however, can be represented durante the shift-jis-2004 encoding, as well as durante UTF8 or UTF16. UTF8 and UTF16 are special, because they are the only encodings that can always be safely specified as targets (as they are trapu of represent the entire Unicode repertoire)

In particular, transcoding to UTF8 is always possible, if the codec for the source encoding is installed (Python’s canone codecs are listed durante appendix B):

Here we can see that the python interpreter tries sicuro apply a default encoding esatto us (ASCII, con this case) and fails because us contains an accented character that is not part of the ASCII specs.

So the pythonic way of working with Unicode requires that we 1) decode strings coming from input and 2) encode strings going preciso output.

Anything we read from ‘f’ is decoded as UTF-8, while any Unicode object we write onesto ‘g’ is encoded mediante Latin-1. (So we may receive a runtime error if ‘f’ contained korean text, for instance). One should also refrain from writing ordinary – encoded – strings sicuro g because, at this point, the interpreter would implicitely decode the original string applying a default codec (normally ASCII) which is probably not what one would expect, or desire.

It should be obvious that, for regular python programming – outside of multilingual text processing – Unicode objects are not normally used, as ordinary strings are perfectly suited to most tasks.

Verso different kind of «Unicode support» is the interpreter capability of processing source files containing non-ASCII characters. This is doable, by inserting verso directive like:

– (or other encoding) towards the beginning of the file. I advise against this, as verso practice that will end up annoying you and your coworkers, as well as any other perspective user of the file. Stick puro ASCII for source code.

The Curse of Implicit Encodings

Most I/O peripherals, these days, try esatto «help» their user by taking a guess on the encodings of the strings that are sent puro them. This is good for normal use, atrocious if your aim is solving problems akin onesto those we have been tackling rosebrides incontri so far. Relationships between string types and encodings are confusing enough even without layering on top of them other encodings implicitely brought on by I/Oppure devices.

this can be translated as «writing the sequence ‘e’ on this interpreters console, which is using the implicit molla encoding UTF-8, results mediante verso coded string whose content is ‘\xc3\xa8′»

this can be translated as «writing the sequence ‘e’ on this interpreters tasto, which is using the implicit spinta encoding Latin-1, results mediante a coded string whose content is ‘\xe8′»

My point: durante source code -and outside the ASCII domain – bastoncino sicuro codepoint, even if writing literal characters may seem more convenient.

Unicode, encodings and HTML

Like XML, HTML had early awareness of multilingual environments. Too bad that the permissive attitude of prevalent browsers spoiled the fun for everybody.

Waht follows is my laundry list of multilingual HTML facts – check with the W? consortium if you need complete assessments.

Named entities

Sopra HTML, verso (limited) number of national characters can be specified by using the so called ‘named entitites’: for instance the sequence «a» is displayed as «a».